A herbarium (Latin: hortus siccus) is a collection of plant samples with associated data preserved for long-term study. These materials may include pressed and mounted plants, seeds, dry fruits, wood sections, pollen, microscope slides, silica-stored materials, frozen DNA extractions, and fluid-preserved flowers or fruits; all are generally referred to as herbarium specimens. Herbaria (plural for herbarium) also store and manage data sets, botanical illustrations, photographic slides, images, maps, and often have libraries of relevant literature needed for consulatation by researchers working with the specimens.
Herbaria are usually affiliated with universities, museums, or botanical gardens. The oldest herbarium in existence is believed to be the collections of Gherardo Cibo, a student of by Luca Ghini, in Bologna, Italy, dating from around 1532. There are now around 3,000 herbaria in over 165 countries with an estimated 350 million specimens. A world catalog of public herbaria, Index Herbariorum, is provided on the web at: http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/. Each herbarium in Index Herbariorum is assigned an official acronym (code) that is used as a standard for referring to the institution and its specimens.
Approximate list of the ten largest herbaria in the world (also see List of Herbaria at Wikipedia and Index Herbariorum, the official registry):
|acronym||location||name||specimens (ca. millions)|
|P, PC||Paris, France||Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle||9.5|
|NY||New York, USA||New York Botanical Garden||7.8|
|LE||St. Petersburg, Russia||Komarov Botanical Institute||7.2|
|K||London, England||Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew||7|
|MO||St. Louis||Missouri Botanical Garden||6.6|
|G||Geneva, Switzerland||Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève||6|
|L, U, WAG||The Netherlands||The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland (NHN)||5.7|
|BM||London, England||British Museum of Natural History||5.2|
|GH, A, AMES, ECON, FH||Cambridge, Massachusetts||Harvard University Herbaria||5|
|W||Vienna, Austria||Naturhistorisches Museum Wien||5|
The University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) is the oldest (est. 1891), largest, and most comprehensive botanical collection in Florida with almost 500,000 specimens. It is the 4th largest herbarium in the southeastern United States. Our acronym,"FLAS", is derived from our affiliation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. The collection includes specimens from every continent except Antarctica, but the geographic focus of the collection is circum-Caribbean and Neotropical (with an emphasis on Florida, the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S., Haiti, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Brazil). The herbarium's collections are actively growing; approximately 2500 plant specimens and 300 library items are added each year.
|160,000||mosses and liverworts|
|16,000||library books, journals, reprints, maps and illustrations||
Like all museum collections, herbarium specimens are stored in perpetuity. The successful long-term storage of specimens necessitates specialized materials, procedures, and facilities. For example, mounting and label papers, folders, storage boxes, inks, and adhesives must all be archival. This means that they lack acids and other constituents that may cause the specimens to degrade over time. To further minimize degradation, specimens are stored in tightly sealed cabinets (preferrably metal). Maintaining a cool, dry storage environment helps reduce the risk of insect and fungal damage to specimens. All incoming plant materials, including both field collections and loans of mounted specimens, are frozen at -5° F for 14 days to kill pests. When an insect infestation occurs, specimens may need to be treated with insecticidal fumigants. Light, overcrowded storage, and mishandling by humans may also cause irreversible specimen damage.
|HOW ARE HERBARIUM SPECIMENS USED?
Herbarium specimens are useful as references for plant identification and for the determination of plant locations and ranges, abundance, habitat, and flowering and fruiting periods. They are used for studies in which the differences between plant species are evaluated and described (monographs) or in which the species growing in a region are reported (floras).
Plant systematics is the core research emphasis for herbarium staff. There are four main areas in systematics --
The results of systematic research help us to better understand plant identities and relationships.
- taxonomy - the recognition and formal description of taxa (plant entities);
- nomenclature - the formal naming of taxa;
- phylogeny - the analysis of taxon relationships; and,
- classification - the formalized hierarchical arrangement of taxa into groups.
Herbarium specimens are also useful in many other disciplines. Examples of other uses include:
- Agronomy/Forestry - locate wild plants that have potential as new crops; document plants used as crops and forage; locate and identify relatives of cultivated species for use in breeding programs; identify and document the spread of weeds
- Anthropology/Archeology - identify seed, wood and other plant remains from archeological sites; document plants used by people (ethnobotany)
- Ecology - locate and document plant communities or individual species; identify and document invasive species
- Entomology - locate food plants and habitats for insects; document pollination ecology
- Environmental Regulation - identify plants in an area in order to define the habitat and designate an environmentally and legally appropriate use for the site
- Forensics - identify plant fragments that might yield evidence in legal cases; in some cases plant fragments may be used to determine if a person was in a certain place
- History - retrace itineraries of early naturalists; track down early place names; determine historic plant ranges
- Horticulture - identify native and cultivated plants; find plant locations; document cultivars
- Pharmaceutical Research - locate wild plants as possible source of medicines
- Poison Control and Medical Care - identify plants in cases of ingestion
- Veterinary Science - identify forage and poisonous plants
- Zoology - identify animal food plants; locate animal habitats
The library is an essential resource when working with plant specimens in the collection. The literature in the FLAS library contains descriptions, geographical ranges, and keys for differentiating species of vascular plants; floristic treatments of various countries and regions throughout the world; and information regarding botanical morphology, plant names (nomenclature), plant collectors, and economic botany.
Just as the materials in a library are arranged in a specific order (usually the Library of Congress or Dewey Decimal catalog systems), the plant materials in most herbaria are organized in a very precise manner. In the FLAS Herbarium, the organizational scheme for the plant collections is taxonomic, geographic, and alphabetic. Each specimen has an exact location where it is stored. This insures that specimens can be easily accessed for study. As new research results in substantiated published changes in nomenclature and systematic relationships, the herbarium collections are usually annotated, relabeled, and/or reorganized accordingly.
|FLAS COLLECTIONS ACTIVITIES
Personnel in the FLAS Herbarium include 5 faculty and full-time staff, 8 research associates, 7 part-time and student employees, and 13 volunteers.
Activities in the FLAS Herbarium can be divided into four broad areas, which parallel the overall function of the Florida Museum of Natural History.
Collections Acquisition and Care
- Process, catalog, accession, and install incoming plant materials; catalog and install incoming library materials
- Computerize label data for specimens already accessioned
- Develop digital image database of plant specimens
- Maintain active specimen transaction program (incoming and outgoing loans, exchanges, and gifts)
- Respond to requests for information regarding the FLAS collections
- Assist visiting researchers in the collections
- Monitor and maintain specimens, cabinetry, equipment, and climate-control system to optimize storage, conservation, and access to collections
- Taxonomic research detailing the genera and species in a plant group, describing new species, and including keys and descriptions to differentiate species
- Floristic research describing the plant life in a specific geographic area
- Morphological and molecular systematic research analyzing the evolutionary relationships between plant taxa
- Design and develop website to communicate information about the herbarium's resources and services
- Provide instructional support (including class tours) for classes in the following University of Florida departments/programs: Agronomy, Anthropology, Botany, Ecology, Entomology, Environmental Horticulture, Forestry, Geography, Landscape Architecture, Museum Studies, Wildlife Ecology, and Zoology
- Contribute to research for the development of museum exhibits
- Plant Identification and Information Service provided to extension agents and the general public (both traditional specimen and digital image submissions)
- Develop informational materials for the general public on local flora, plant taxonomy, and plant hazards
|WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION
- Bridson, D. and L. Forman, eds. 1998. The Herbarium Handbook, 3rd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Great Britain.
- DeWolf, G.P., Jr. 1968. Notes on Making an Herbarium. Arnoldia 28(8/9): 69-111.
- Fosberg, F.R. and M.-H. Sachet. 1965. Manual for Tropical Herbaria. Regnum Vegetabile, Vol. 39. International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, Utrecht, Netherlands.
- Holmgren, P.K., N.H. Holmgren and L.C. Barnett. 1990. Index Herbariorum: Part I: The Herbaria of the World. 8th ed. Regnum Vegetabile, Vol. 120. For International Association for Plant Taxonomy by New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.
- Imes, R. 1990. The Practical Botanist. Simon and Schuster, New York.
- Leenhouts, P.W. 1968. A Guide to the Practice of Herbarium Taxonomy. Regnum Vegetabile, Vol. 58. International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Utrecht, Netherlands.
- Metsger, D.A. and S.C. Byers, eds. 1999. Managing the Modern Herbarium: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Published jointly by Society of the Preservation of Natural History Collections with The Royal Ontario Museum Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Research, Washington, D.C.
- Smith, E.E., Jr. 1971. Preparing Herbarium Specimens of Vascular Plants. U.S.D.A. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 348. Washington, D.C.