Aguilera, O. A., L. Garcia, and M. A. Cozzuol. 2008. Giant-toothed white sharks and cetacean trophic interaction from the Pliocene Caribbean Paraguana Formation. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift, v. 82, p. 204-208.

Aguilera, O., and D. R. Aguilera. 2004. Giant-toothed white sharks and wide-toothed mako (Lamnidae) from the Venezuela Neogene: their role in the Caribbean, shallow-water fish assemblage. Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 40, p. 368-382.

Applegate, S. P., and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena. 1996. The fossil history of Carcharodon and its possible ancestor, Cretolamna: a study in tooth identification; pp. 19-36 in A. Kimley and D.Ainley (eds.), Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Cappetta, H. 1987. Chondrichthyes II. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii; in H.-P. Schultze (ed.). Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 3B. Verlag Dr. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, New York, 193 pp.

Casier, E. 1960. Note sur la collection des poisons Paléocènes et Éocènes de l’Enclave de Cabinda (Congo). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (A.3) 1, 2:1-48.

Cigala-Fulgosi, F. 1990. Predation (or possible scavenging) by a great white shark on an extinct species of bottlenosed dolphin in the Italian Pliocene. Tertiary Research, v. 12, p. 17-36.

Cione, A. L., J. A. Mennucci, F. Santalucita, and C. A. Hospitaleche. 2007. Local extinction of sharks of genus Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810 (Elasmobranchii, Odontaspididae) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Revista Geologica De Chile, v. 34, p. 139-145.

Deméré, T. A., and R. A. Cerutti. 1982. A Pliocene shark attack on a cetotheriid whale. Journal of Paleontology, v. 56, p. 1480-1482.

Ehret, D. J., G. Hubbell, and B. J. MacFadden. 2009. Exceptional preservation of the white sharkCarcharodon (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the early Pliocene of Peru. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology v. 29 no.1, p. 1–13.

Ehret, D. J., B. J. MacFadden, and R. Salas-Gismondi. 2009. Caught In The Act: Trophic Interactions Between A 4-Million-Year-Old White Shark (Carcharodon) And Mysticete Whale From Peru. Palaios v. 24, p. 329–333.

Flemming, C., and D. A. McFarlane. 1998. New Caribbean locality for the extinct great white sharkCarcharodon megalodon. Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 34, p. 317-318.

Frazzetta, T. H. 1988. The Mechanics of cutting and the form of shark teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Zoomorphology, v. 108, p. 93-107.

Gillette, D. D. 1984. A marine ichthyofauna from the Miocene of Panama, and the Tertiary Caribbean faunal province. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 4, p. 172-186.

Goto, M., T. Kikuchi, S. Sekimoto, and T. Noma. 1984. Fossil teeth of the great white shark,Carcharodon carcharias, from the Kazusa and Shimosa Groups (Pliocene to Pleistocene) in Boso Peninsula and Shimosa Upland, Central Japan. Earth Science [Chikyu Kagaku], 38(6):420-426.

Gottfried, M. D., and R. E. Fordyce. 2001. An associated specimen of Carcharodon angustidens(Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae) from the late Oligocene of New Zealand, with comments onCarcharodon interrelationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21:730-739.

Gottfried, M. D., L. J. V. Compagno, and S. C. Bowman. 1996. Size and skeletal anatomy of the giant “megatooth” shark Carcharodon megalodon; pp. 55-89 in A. Kimley and D. Ainley (eds.), Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Hatai, K., K. Masuda, and H. Noda. 1974. Marine fossils from the Moniwa Formation, distributed along the Natori River, Sendai, Northeast Honshu, Japan. Part 3. Shark teeth from the Moniwa Formation. Saito Ho-on Kai Museum Research Bulletin 43:9-25.

Hubbell, G. 1996. Using tooth structure to determine the evolutionary history of the white shark; pp. 9-18 in A. Kimley and D. Ainley (eds.), Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Hubbell, G. 1990. Nuevas apreciaciones sobre los antepasados del gran tiburon blanco: Boletin de Lima, v. 12, p. 27-28.

Labs-Hochstein, J., and B. J. MacFadden. 2006. Quantification of diagenesis in Cenozoic sharks: elemental and mineralogical changes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70:4921-4932.

MacFadden, B. J., J. Labs-Hochstein, I. Quitmyer, and D. Jones. 2004. Incremental growth and diagenesis of skeletal parts of the lamnoid shark Otodus obliquus from the early Eocene (Ypresian) of Morocco. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 206:179-192.

Martin, A. F. 1996. Systematics of the Lamnidae and origination time of Carcharodon carchariasinferred from the comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences; pp. 49-53 in A. Kimley and D. Ainley (eds.), Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Nieves-Rivera, A. M., M. Ruiz-Yantin, and M. D. Gottfried. 2003. New record of the Lamnid SharkCarcharodon megalodon from the Middle Miocene of Puerto Rico: Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 39, p. 223-227.

Noriega, J. I., A. L. Cione, and F. G. Acenolaza. 2007. Shark tooth marks on Miocene balaenopterid cetacean bones from Argentina: Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie-Abhandlungen, v. 245, p. 185-192.

Nyberg, K. G., Ciampaglio, C. N., and Wray G. A. 2006. Tracing the ancestry of the Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Vol. 26(4):806-814.

Purdy, R. 1996. Paleoecology of fossil white sharks; pp. 67-78 in A. Kimley and D. Ainley (eds.), Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Purdy, R., Schneider, V. P., Applegate, S. P., McLellan, J. H., Meyer, R. L., and B. H. Slaughter. 2001. The Neogene sharks, rays, and bony fishes from Lee Creek Mine, Aurora, North Carolina; pp. 71-202 in C. E. Ray and D. J. Bohaska (eds.), Geology and Paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, III. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology no. 90.

Repenning, C. A., and E. L. Packard. 1990. Locomotion of a desmostylian and evidence of ancient shark predation, in BOUCOT, A.J., ed., Evolutionary paleobiology of behavior and coevolution. Elsevier Press, p. 199-203.

Schwimmer, D. R., J. D. Stewart, and G. D. Williams. 1997. Scavenging by sharks of the genus Squalicorax in the late Cretaceous of North America. Palaios, v. 12, p. 71-83.

Shimada, K. 1997. Periodic marker bands in vertebral centra of the Late Cretaceous lamniform shark, Cretoxyrhina mantelli. Copeia 1997:233-235.

Shimada, K. 2002. Dental homologies in lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii). Journal of Morphology 251:3-72.

Shimada, K. 2003. The relationship between the tooth size and total body length in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae). Journal of Fossil Research 35:28-33.

Shimada, K. 2005. Phylogeny of lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) and the contribution of dental characters to lamniform systematics. Paleontological Research 9:55-72.

Shimada, K. 2007. Skeletal and dental anatomy of lamniform shark, Cretalamna appendiculata, from Upper Cretaceous Niobrara chalk of Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27:584-602.

Shimada, K., and M. J. Everhart. 2004. Shark-bitten Xiphactinus audax (Teleostei: Ichthyodectiformes) from the Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas. The Mosasaur, v. 7, p. 35-39.

Shimada, K., and G. E. Hooks III. 2004. Shark-bitten protostegid turtles from the Upper Cretaceous Mooreville Chalk, Alabama. Journal of Paleontology, v. 78, p. 205-210.

Shimada, K., and D. J. Cicimurri. 2005. Skeletal anatomy of the Late Cretaceous shark, Squalicorax(Neoselachii: Anacoracidae). Palaeontoligische Zeitschrift 79:241-261.

Siverson, M. 1999. A new large lamniform shark from the uppermost Gearle Siltstone (Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous) of Western Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 90:49-66.

Tanaka, T., and S. Mori. 1996. Fossil elasmobranchs from the Oiso Formation (late Miocene) in the western part of Kanagawa Prefecture. Bulletin of the Hiratsuka City Museum, 19:67-81.

Uyeno, T., and Y. Matsushima. 1979. Comparative study of teeth from Naganuma Formation of Middle Pleistocene and Recent specimens of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias from Japan. Bulletin of Kanagawa Prefectural Museum 11:11-30.

Yabe, H. 2000. Teeth of an extinct great white shark, Carcharodon sp., from the Neogene Senhata Formation, Miura Group, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Tertiary Research 20:95-105.


Adnet, S., P. O. Antoine, S. R. H. Baqri, J. Y. Crochet, L. Marivaux, J. L. Welcomme, and G. Metais. 2007. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 30, p. 303-323.

Aguilera, O., and D. R. De Aguilera. 2001. An exceptional coastal upwelling fish assemblage in the Caribbean Neogene. Journal of Paleontology, v. 75, p. 732-742.

Coates, M. I., and S. E. K. Sequeira. 1998. The braincase of a primitive shark. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh-Earth Sciences, v. 89, p. 63-85.

Donovan, S. K., V. Nagassar, and K. Sankar. 2001. A fossil shark from the Plio-Pleistocene of Tobago. Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 37, p. 119-122.

Donovan, S.K. and G.C. Gunter. 2001. Fossil sharks from Jamaica. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 28: 211-215.

dos Reis, M. A. F.. 2005. Chondrichthyan fauna from the Pirabas Formation, Miocene of northern Brazil, with comments on paleobiogeography. Anuario do Instituto de Geociencias, v. 28, p. 31-58.

Ferrusquia-Villafranca, I., S. P. Applegate, and L. Espinosa-Arrubarrena. 1999. First Palaeogene selachifauna of the Middle American-Caribbean-Antillean region, La Mesa de Copoya, west-central Chiapas, Mexico – systematics and paleontological significance. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, v. 16, p. 155-174.

Iturralde-Vinent, M., G. Hubbell, and R. Rojas. 1996. Catalogue of Cuban fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene to Pliocene) and paleogeographic implications of their Lower to Middle Miocene occurrence. Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, v. 31, p. 7-21.

Longbottom, A. E. 1979. Miocene sharks’ teeth from Ecuador. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology, v. 32, p. 57-70.

Maisey, J. G. 2001. CT-scan reveals new cranial features in Devonian chondrichthyan “Cladodus” wildungensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 21, p. 807-810.

Maisey, J. G., and M. E. Anderson. 2001. A primitive chondrichthyan braincase from the Early Devonian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 21, p. 702-713.

Miller, R. F., R. Cloutier, and S. Turner. 2003. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period. Nature, v. 425, p. 501-504.

Purdy, R. W. 1998. Chondrichthyan fishes from the Paleocene of South Carolina. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, v. 88, p. 122-146.

Sahni, A., and D. K. Mehrotra, 1980. The elasmobranch fauna of coastal miocene sediments of peninsular India. Biological Memoirs, v. 5, p. 83-121.

Underwood, C. J. 2006. Diversification of the Neoselachii (Chondrichthyes) during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Paleobiology, v. 32, p. 215-235.

Underwood, C. J., and S. F. Mitchell. 1999. Serratolamna serrata (Agassiz) (Pisces, Neoselachii) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Jamaica. Caribbean Journal of Earth Science, v. 34, p. 25-30.