The Butterfly Rainforest will be closed due to weather Jan 17-18. Behind-the-scenes tours available on Thursday. More Info

Learn more about vertebrate paleontology (fossil bones), invertebrate paleontology (fossil animals lacking bones), paleobotany (fossil plants), and palynology (fossil pollen) with our Florida Museum scientists. Our extensive collections focus on the Cenozoic Era (last 65 million years) in Florida, the Southeast US, and some Caribbean region.

Latest Paleontology News at the Florida Museum

Research Highlights


Titanoboa vertebrae
Florida Museum vertebrate paleontologist Jonathan Bloch shows the size difference between vertebrae belonging to Titanoboa cerrejonensis and a modern-day anaconda.

Florida Museum scientists and students played a critical role in the discovery of the largest snake the world has ever known–as long as a school bus and as heavy as a small car–-which ruled tropical ecosystems only 6 million years after the demise of the fearsome Tyrannosaurus rex.

Partial skeletons of the giant, boa constrictor-like snake, named Titanoboa cerrejonensis, were found in Colombia by an international team of scientists including Florida Museum vertebrate paleontologist Jonathan Bloch and are now housed at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Based on the diameter of the fossilized vertebrae, the snake is estimated to be 42 to 45 feet long.  Besides tipping the scales at an estimated 1.25 tons, the snake lived during the Paleocene Epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

During the expedition, the scientists found many skeletons of giant turtles and extinct primitive crocodile relatives that likely were eaten by the snake. The snake’s gigantic dimensions are a sign that temperatures along the equator were once much hotter.  Based on the snake’s size, the team was able to calculate the mean annual temperature at equatorial South America 60 million years ago was about 91 degrees Fahrenheit, about 10 degrees warmer than today.

The discovery of Titanoboa resulted in a collaboration between the Florida Museum, Smithsonian Institution and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, and University of Nebraska to create a feature-length documentary film, Titanoboa: Monster Snake which premiered on the Smithsonian Channel April 1, 2012.  An exhibit of the same title opened at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. on March 30 and will travel to other national and international venues.

Panama Canal Project – PIRE

The Panama Canal is currently being expanded on a scale not seen since the original excavations one hundred years ago. During this current expansion, important new Neogene fossiliferous deposits are being uncovered. The mission of the PCP PIRE is toadvance knowledge of the extinct faunas and floras of the ancient Neotropics based on the new fossil discoveries along the Canal. Consistent with NSF’s PIRE program objectives, university students (undergraduate and graduate), postdocs, and faculty are engaging in PCP paleontological, geological, and biological research and Broader Impacts outreach. The ultimate outcome of the PCP PIRE will be to promote discovery and advance knowledge while training the next generation of scientists better able to engage in international experiences.

Vertebrate Evolution

Recent research at the Florida Museum sheds new light on the origins of primates. Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology Jonathan Bloch led a team of scientists in discovering two 56-million-year-old fossils in Wyoming, the most primitive primate skeletons ever described. After exhaustive study of the fossils, Bloch and his colleagues presented strong evidence that this archaic group of mammals called plesiadapiforms may be more closely related to modern primates than to any other mammal group, and the ancestors of modern primates. This research extends the primate family tree 10 million years back in time. By researching the earliest stages of primate evolution, Bloch and his colleagues can more effectively trace the multitude of anatomical changes that have taken place in the numerous lineages of primates.


  • Fossil Horses in Cyberspace Learn about paleontology and evolution by exploring the rich fossil record of horses.
  • Invertebrate Paleontology Image Gallery Image galleries of fossil bivalves, cephalopods, corals, crabs, shrimps, gastropods, sand dollars, sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea stars and much more.
  • Paleobotany and Palynology Image Gallery A selection of fossil plant and pollen images.
  • Shared Paleontology Resources Resources available to students, teachers, professional and avocation paleontologists, and the general public who are interested in fossils from Florida (and elsewhere).
  • Thomas Farm Thomas Farm is the richest Early Miocene vertebrate fossil locality in North America and perhaps in the entire world. Since its discovery in 1931, the fossils of more than 100 species have been found at Thomas Farm.

  • Florida Vertebrate Fossil Collecting Permit Fossil collectors who collect vertebrate fossils on state lands in Florida, which include all navigable waterways, and offshore waters, are required to have a Fossil Collecting Permit issued by the Florida Program of Vertebrate Paleontology.
  • Vertebrate Fossil Identification Service Museum scientists will identify fossils that have been legally collected or purchased.
  • Collecting Fossil Plants in Florida While fossil plant remains are nowhere as abundant as the remains of fossil vertebrates or invertebrates in Florida, they are nonetheless an important part of Florida’s fossil record.
  • Florida’s Fossil, Shell, and Mineral Clubs Numerous clubs have been organized around the state that cater, wholly or in part, to fossil collecting. Some are strictly paleontological, some focus just on modern and fossil shells, and some are rock, mineral, and fossil organizations.
  • Invertebrate Paleontology Image Gallery Image galleries of fossil bivalves, cephalopods, corals, crabs, shrimps, gastropods, sand dollars, sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea stars and much more.
  • Thomas Farm Fossil Digs Thomas Farm is an ideal fossil site for combining research with education. Side-by-side, both professional and amateur paleontologists have excavated vertebrate fossils at Thomas Farm for many decades, with great mutual benefit. The Florida Museum routinely operates programs that teach people of highly varied backgrounds about the ancient amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals that lived in Florida 18 million years ago.
  • Using Topographic Maps for Fossil Hunting One of the more useful maps for the avocational and professional paleontologist alike is the topographic map. Learn how to use one and and how to find maps for your area.

Visit these Museum collections for more information:

Visiting the Florida Museum? You can learn more about fossils and paleontology in these permanent exhibits: