Personal Data:

Address: Office PO Box 117800

Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7800

Phone (352) 392-1721 ext. 203

FAX (352) 846-2016



University of Alabama Sept. 1961 - Aug. 1964 B.S.

Washington University Sept. 1964 - May 1965

University of Alabama June 1965 - Aug. 1966 M.S.

University of Miami Sept. 1966 - Jan. 1971 Ph.D.

Professional Experience:

Woodrow Wilson Fellowship, Washington University, 1964-65
Graduate Teaching Assistant, University of Alabama 1965-66
NSF Graduate Teaching Summer Fellowship, 1966
NDEA Fellowship, University of Miami, 1966-68
Smithsonian Institution Pre-doctoral Internship, at the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 1968-69
Research Assistant to Dr. C.H. Dodson 1969-71
Postdoctoral Research Associate, Laboratory for Quantitative
Biology, University of Miami Jan. 1971 - Aug. 1971
Visiting Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of
Botany, Smithsonian Institution 1971-72
Research Associate, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, FL
Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Science,
Florida State University 1973-78
Associate Professor, Department of Biological Science,
Florida State University 1978-81
Associate Curator, Joint Associate Professor of Botany, and
Keeper of the Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History,
University of Florida 1981-84
Chairman, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Museum of Natural History, 1985-1994
Curator, Joint Professor of Botany, and Keeper of the Herbarium,
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida 1984-present

Memberships in Professional Societies:

American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Society of Naturalists
American Society of Plant Taxonomists
Association for Tropical Biology
Botanical Society of America
Fellow of the Linnean Society of London
International Association for Plant Taxonomy
International Society of Chemical Ecology
Society for the Study of Evolution


Phi Beta Kappa

Sigma Xi

Woodrow Wilson Fellow

Honorary Life Member, American Orchid Society

American Men and Women of Science

President's Medal, University of Costa Rica

Adjunct Research Scientist, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens

Lankester Prize 2003, University of Costa Rica, for pioineering work on the ecology, evolution, phylogeny, and systematics of orchids

Research Interests:

A. Molecular systematics of orchids and euglossine bees

B. Systematics and evolution of the Orchidaceae

C. Chemistry of floral fragrances

D. Pollen morphology and pollination mechanisms in the Neotropical Gesneriaceae

E. Attraction of euglossine bees to floral fragrances and pollination of aroids, gesneriads, and orchids by euglossine bees


  1. Hills, H.G., N.H. Williams, and C.H. Dodson. 1968. Identification of Some Orchid Fragrance Components. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 37:967-971.

  2. Dodson, C.H., R.L. Dressler, H.G. Hills, R.M. Adams, and N.H. Williams. 1969. Biologically Active Compounds in Orchid Fragrances. Science 164:1243-1249.

  3. Williams, N.H. 1970. Some Observations on Pollinaria in the Oncidiinae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 39:32-43, 207-220.

  4. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 1970. The Genus Systeloglossum. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 39:323-329.

  5. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 1970. An Overlooked Genus in the Oncidiinae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 39:988-994.

  6. Williams, N.H. and C.H. Dodson. 1972. Selective Attraction of Male Euglossine Bees to Orchid Floral Fragrances and Its Importance in Long Distance Pollen Flow. Evolution 26:84-95.

  7. Williams, N.H. 1972. A Reconsideration of Ada and the Glumaceous Brassias (Orchidaceae). Brittonia 24:93-110.

  8. Hills, H.G., N.H. Williams, and C.H. Dodson. 1972. Floral Fragrances and Isolating Mechanisms in the Genus Catasetum (Orchidaceae). Biotropica 4:61-76.

  9. Ayensu, E.S. and N.H. Williams. 1972. Leaf Anatomy of Palumbina and Odontoglossum Subgenus Osmoglossum. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 41:687-696.

  10. Williams, N.H. 1972. Additional Studies on Pollinaria in the Oncidiinae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 41:222-230.

  11. Williams, N.H. and R.L. Dressler. 1973. Oncidium Species Described by Jacquin and the Typification of Oncidium. Taxon 22:221-227.

  12. Williams, N.H. 1974. Taxonomy of the Genus Aspasia Lindley (Orchidaceae: Oncidieae). Brittonia 26:333-346.

  13. Williams, N.H. 1974. The Value of Plant Anatomy in Orchid Taxonomy. Pp. 281-298 in M. Ospina (ed.). Proceedings of the Seventh World Orchid Conference. Medellin, Colombia.

  14. Williams, N.H. 1975. Stomatal Development in Ludisia Discolor (Orchidaceae): Mesoperigenous Subsidiary Cells in the Monocotyledons. Taxon 24:281-288.

  15. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 1975. Jacquin Names - Again. Taxon 24:647-650.

  16. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 1975. El Complejo Oncidoglossum Confusum. Orquidea 4:332-352.

  17. Williams, N.H. and C.R. Broome. 1976. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Orchid Pollen. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 45:699-707.

  18. Williams, N.H. and R.L. Dressler. 1976. Euglossine Pollination of Spathiphyllum (Araceae). Selbyana 1:349-356.

  19. Williams, N.H. 1976. Subsidiary Cell Development in the Catasetinae (Orchidaceae) and Related Groups. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 72:299-309.

  20. Newton, G.D. and N.H. Williams. 1978. Pollen Morphology of the Cypripedioideae and the Apostasioideae (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 2:169-182.

  21. Williams, N.H. 1978. Pollen Structure and the Systematics of the Neotropical Gesneriaceae. Selbyana 2:310-322.

  22. Williams, N.H. 1978. A Preliminary Bibliography on Euglossine Bees and Their Relationships with Orchids and Other Plants. Selbyana 2:345-355.

  23. Atwood, J.T. and N.H. Williams. 1978. The Utility of Epidermal Cell Features in Phragmipedium and Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae) for Determining Sterile Specimens. Selbyana 2:356-366.

  24. Williams, N.H. 1979. Subsidiary Cells in the Orchidaceae: Their General Distribution with Special Reference to Development in the Oncidieae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 78:41-66.

  25. Atwood, J.T. and N.H. Williams. 1979. Surface Features of the Adaxial Epidermis in the Conduplicate-leaved Cypripedioideae (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 78:141-156.

  26. Pridgeon, A.M. and N.H. Williams. 1979. Anatomical Aspects of Dresslerella (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 5:120-134.

  27. Williams, N.H. 1979. Preface - The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects, by Charles Darwin. Reprint of the 1862 Edition. Pp. V-XI. Earl M. Coleman, Publisher.

  28. Ackerman, J.D. and N.H. Williams. 1980. Pollen Morphology of the Tribe Neottieae and Its Impact on the Classification of the Orchidaceae. Grana 19:7-18.

  29. Dodson, C.H. and N.H. Williams. 1980. Konantzia, A New Genus in the Orchidaceae from Western Ecuador. Phytologia 46:387-388.

  30. Williams, N.H. 1981. Floral Fragrance Components of Brassavola (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 5:279-285.

  31. Murrell, J.T., N.H. Williams, A.M. Pridgeon, and C.H. Dodson. 1981. Floral Fragrances in Angraecum (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 5:286-290.

  32. Williams, N.H., J.T. Atwood, and C.H. Dodson. 1981. Floral Fragrance Analysis in Anguloa, Lycaste, and Mendoncella (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 5:291-295.

  33. Ackerman, J.D. and N.H. Williams. 1981. Pollen Morphology of the Chloraeinae (Orchidaceae: Diuridae) and Related Subtribes. American Journal of Botany 68:1392-1402.

  34. Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 1982. Identification of Floral Fragrance Components of Stanhopea Embreei and Attraction of Its Pollinator to Synthetic Fragrance Compounds. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 51:1262-1266.

  35. Williams, N.H. 1982. The Biology of Orchids and Euglossine Bees. Pp. 119-171 in J. Arditti (ed.). Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives, II. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York.

  36. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 1982. Proposal for the Conservation of the Generic Name 1779 Oncidium Swartz (Orchidaceae) with a Conserved Type Species, Oncidium Altissimum Sw. Taxon 31:752-754.

  37. Williams, N.H. 1983. Floral Fragrances as Cues in Animal Behavior. Pp. 50-72 in C.E. Jones and R.J. Little (eds.). Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York.

  38. Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 1983. Orchid Floral Fragrances and Male Euglossine Bees: Methods and Advances in the Last Sesquidecade. Biological Bulletin 164:355-395.

  39. Williams, N.H., W.M. Whitten, and C.H. Dodson. 1984. Preliminary Analyses of the Floral Fragrances of Species of Acineta, Houlletia, Lueddemannia, Lycomormium, Paphinia, and Sievekingia (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7:315-317.

  40. Lindquist, N., M.A. Battiste, W.M. Whitten, N.H. Williams, and L. Strekowski. 1985. Trans-carvone Oxide, A Monoterpene Epoxide from the Fragrance of Catasetum. Phytochemistry 24:863-865.

  41. Williams, N.H., W.M. Whitten, and L.F. Pedrosa. 1985. Crystalline Production of Fragrance in Gongora Quinquenervis. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 54:598-603.

  42. Gupta, M.P., T.D. Arias, N.H. Williams, R. Bos, and D.H.E. Tattje. 1985. Safrole, the Main Component of the Essential Oil from Piper Auritum of Panama. Journal of Natural Products 48:330.

  43. Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 1985. Advances and Trends in Orchid Floral Fragrance Analysis. Pp.392-395 in K.W. Tan and J. McQuery (eds.). Proceedings of the Eleventh World Orchid Conference. Miami, Fl.

  44. Whitten, W.M., N.H. Williams, W.S. Armbruster, M.A. Battiste, L. Strekowski, and N. Lindquist. 1986. Carvone Oxide: An Example of Convergent Evolution in Euglossine Pollinated Plants. Systematic Botany 11:222-228.

  45. Rodríguez Caballero, R.L., D.E. Mora, M.E. Barahona, and N.H. Williams. 1986. Géneros de Orquídeas de Costa Rica. Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica. 334 pp. In addition to my work on the Spanish botanical portion of the text, I translated the work into English.

  46. Dressler, R.L., D.W. Hall, K.D. Perkins, and N.H. Williams. 1987. Identification Manual for Wetland Plant Species of Florida. IFAS Special Publication-35. University of Florida. 297 pp. Second printing 1991.

  47. Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 1988. Stanhopea panamensis, A New Species from Central Panama (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 3:9-11.

  48. Fritze, K.J. and N.H. Williams. 1988. The Taxonomic Significance of Pollen Morphology in the Columnea Alliance (Gesneriaceae: Gesnerioideae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 75: 168-191.

  49. Whitten, W.M., H.G. Hills, and N.H. Williams. 1988. Occurrence of Ipsdienol in Floral Fragrances. Phytochemistry 27:2759-2760.

  50. Whitten, W.M., A.M. Young, and N.H. Williams. 1989. Function of Glandular Secretions in Fragrance Collection by Male Euglossine Bees (Apidae:Euglossini). Journal of Chemical Ecology 15:1285-1295.

  51. Dodson, C.H., N.H. Williams, and W.M. Whitten. 1989. A New Species of Gongora (Orchidaceae) from Ecuador. Lindleyana 4:30-32.

  52. Hills, H.G. and N.H. Williams. 1990. Fragrance cycle of Clowesia rosea (Orchidaceae). Orquidea 12:19-22.

  53. Whitten, W.M. and N.H. Williams. 1991. A new species and nomenclatural changes in Gongora sect. Acropera (Orchidaceae: Stanhopeinae). Lindleyana 6:109-112.

  54. Whitten, W.M. and N.H. Williams. 1991. Gongora escobariana Whitten, a new species from Colombia, and the rediscovery of G. sanderiana in Peru. Orquideología 18:105-127.

  55. Whitten, W.M. and N.H. Williams. 1992. Floral fragrances of Stanhopea (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 7:130-153.

  56. Hills, H.G., N.H. Williams, and W.M. Whitten. 1999. Fragrances of Catasetum. Pp. 263-272 in THE WORLD OF CATASETUMS. Arthur Holst (ed.). Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.

  57. Whitten, W. M., N. H. Williams, and K. V. Glover. 1999. Sulphuryl fluoride fumigation: effect on DNA extraction and amplification from herbarium specimens. Taxon 48:507-510.

  58. Anderson, J.E., J.F. Preston, D.W. Dickson, T.E. Hewlett, N.H. Williams, and J.E. Maruniak. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Pasteuria penetrans, a parasitic bacterium of root-knot nematodes, by 16s rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Journal of Nematology 31:319-325.

  59. Williams, N.H. and W.M. Whitten. 1999. Molecular phylogeny and floral fragrances of male euglossine bee pollinated orchids: a study of Stanhopea. Plant Species Biology 14: 129-137.

  60. Castro, H.F., N.H. Williams, and A. Ogram. 2000. Phylogeny of sulfate-reducing bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 31:1-9.

  61. Whitten, W. M., N. H. Williams, and M. W. Chase. 2000. Subtribal and generic relationships of Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae) with emphasis on Stanhopeinae: Combined molecular evidence. American Journal of Botany 87:1842-1856.

  62. Wood, T.H., W. M. Whitten, and N. H. Williams. 2000. Phylogeny of Hedychium and related genera (Zingiberaceae) based upon ITS sequence data. Journal of the Edinburgh Botanical Garden 57:261-270.

  63. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 2000. Chelyorchis, a new genus. P. 1130 in Romero-González, G.A. and G. Carnevali Fernández-Concha. Orchids of Venezuela: An illustrated field guide. Second edition. Armitano Editores. Caracas, Venezuela.

  64. Iudica, C.A., W.M. Whitten, and N.H. Williams. 2001. Small bones from dried mammal museum specimens as a reliable source of DNA. BioTechniques 30: 732-736.

  65. Sosa, V., M. W. Chase, G. Salazar , W. M. Whitten, and N. H. Williams. 2001. Phylogenetic Position of Dignathe (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae): evidence from nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA sequences. Lindleyana 16: 94-101.

  66. Williams, N.H., M. W. Chase, T. Fulcher, and W. M. Whitten. 2001. Molecular systematics of the Oncidiinae based on evidence from four DNA sequence regions: expanded circumscriptions of Cyrtochilum, Erycina, Otoglossum, and Trichocentrum and a new genus (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 16: 113-139.

  67. Zomlefer, W.B., N.H. Williams, W.M. Whitten, and W.S. Judd. 2001. Generic circumscription and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: evidence from ITS and trnL-F sequence data. American Journal of Botany 88: 1657-1669.

  68. Chase, M.W. and N.H. Williams. 2001. Additional transfers to Trichocentrum Poepp. and Endl. and Otoglossum Garay and Dunst. (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae). Lindleyana 16: 218-219.

  69. Williams, N.H. and W. M. Whitten. 2001. Checking an orchid hybrid’s background: The use of molecular data in determining parentage of hybrids. Orchids 70: 1056-1061.

  70. Williams, N.H., M. W. Chase, and W. M. Whitten. 2001. Phylogenetic position of Miltoniopsis, Caucaea, a new genus, Cyrtochiloides, and relationship of Oncidium phymatochilum based on nuclear and chloroplast dna sequence data (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae). Lindleyana 16: 272-285.

  71. Koehler, S., N.H. Williams, W.M. Whitten, and M.E. do Amaral. 2002. Phylogeny of the Bifrenaria (Orchidaceae) complex based on morphology and sequence data from nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and chloroplast trnL-F region. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163:1055-1066.

  72. Carlsward, B. S., W. M. Whitten, and N. H. Williams. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics of neotropical leafless Angraecinae (Orchidaceae): reevaluation of generic concepts. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164(1): 43-51.

  73. Zomlefer, W. B., W. M. Whitten, N. H. Williams, and W. S. Judd. 2003. An overview of Veratrum (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and an infrageneric phylogeny based on ITS sequence data. Systematic Botany 28(2): 250-269.

  74. Carnevali, G., J.L. Tapia, N.H. Williams, and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Sistemática, filogenia y biogeografía de Myrmecophila (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 7: 29-32. Abstract.

  75. Ojeda, I., G. Carnevali, N.H. Williams, and W.M. Whitten. 2003. Phylogeny of the Heterotaxis complex (Maxillariinae): evolution of the vegetative architecture and pollination syndromes. Lankesteriana 7: 45-47. Abstract.

  76. Williams, N.H. and W. M. Whitten. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics and generic concepts in the Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 7: 61-62. Abstract.

  77. Dressler, R.L. and N.H. Williams. 2003. New combinations in Mesoamerican Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 24(1): 44-45.

  78. Dressler, R. L., Whitten, W. M., and N. H. Williams. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of Scaphyglottis and related genera (Laeliinae: Orchidaceae) based on nrDNA ITS sequence data. Brittonia 56: 58-66.

  79. Chase, M. W., L. Hanson, V. A. Albert, W. M. Whitten, and N. H. Williams. 2005. Life history evolution and genome size in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae). Annals of Botany 95: 191-199.

  80. Damián Loayza, M., N. H. Williams, and W M. Whitten. 2005. Phragmipedium kovachii: Molecular systematics of a new world orchid. Orchids 74: 132-137.

  81. Whitten, W.M., N. H. Williams, R. L. Dressler, G. Gerlach, and F. Pupulin. 2005. Generic relationships of Zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbideae): combined molecular evidence. Lankesteriana 5: 87-108.

  82. Williams, N.H., W.M. Whitten, and R. L. Dressler. 2005. Molecular systematics of Telipogon (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) and its allies: nuclear and plastid dna sequence data. Lankesteriana 5: 163-184.

  83. Carlsward,B.S., W. M. Whitten, N. H. Williams, and B. Bytebie. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of Vandeae (Orchidaceae) and the evolution of leaflessness. American Journal of Botany 93: 770-786.

  84. Zomlefer, W.B., W.M. Whitten, N.H. Williams, and W.S. Judd. 2006. Infrageneric phylogeny of Schoenocaulon (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) with clarification of cryptic species based on ITS sequence data and geographical distribution. American Journal of Botany 93: 1178-1192.

  85. Whitten, W.M., M. A. Blanco, and N. H. Williams. 2006. Recircumscription of Pityphyllum (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae). ORCHIDS (Lindleyana) 75:452-456.

  86. Blanco, M. A., W. M. Whitten, N. H. Williams, and S. Koehler. 2006. Capillitial extrusion from fruits of Maxillaria nardoides (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae). ORCHIDS (Lindleyana) 75: 685-691.

  87. Zomlefer, W. B., Judd, W. S., Whitten, W. M., and Williams, N. H. 2006. A synopsis of Melanthiaceae (Liliales), with focus on character evolution in tribe Melanthieae. In J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson [eds.], Comparative biology of the monocotyledons: proceedings of the Third International Conference, pp. 566-578. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, California, USA.

  88. Blanco, M. A, W. M. Whitten, D. S. Penneys,N. H. Williams, K. M. Neubig, and L. Endara. 2006. A Simple And Safe Method For Rapid Drying Of Plant Specimens Using Forced-Air Space Heaters. Selbyana 27: 83-87.

  89. Ionta G. M., W. S. Judd, N. H. Williams, & W. M. Whitten. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships in Rhexia (Melastomataceae): Evidence from DNA sequence data and morphology. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168: 1055-1066.

  90. Whitten, W.M., M. A. Blanco, N. H. Williams, S. Koehler, G. Carnevali, R. B. Singer, L. Endara, & K. M. Neubig. 2007. Molecular Phylogenetics of Maxillaria and Related Genera (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae) Based Upon Combined Molecular Data Sets. American Journal of Botany 94: 1860-1889.

  91. Williams, N.H., J. D. Ackerman, E. M. Fernández, & J. Llamacho. 2007. Antillanorchis: Its Rediscovery and Systematic Position. ORCHIDS 76: 856-858.

  92. Blanco, M. A. G. Carnevali, W. M. Whitten, R. Singer, S. Koehler, N. H. Williams, I. Ojeda, K. Neubig, & L. Endara. 2007. Generic realignments in Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 7(3): 515-537.

Research Support:

American Orchid Society (AOS) Fund for Education and Research. 1967. "Field Work in Central America." $600.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1970. "Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Orchid Pollen." $969.

National Science Foundation. 1972-75. "Vegetative Anatomy of the Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)." $30,000.

FSU Committee on Faculty Research Support. 1974-75. "The Interaction of Floral Fragrance Components and Euglossine Bees." $3,140.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1976-78. "Structure and Evolution of Orchid Pollen." $2,000.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1976-77. "Training Orchidologists for the Future." $3,100.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1977-79. "A Survey of Plicate Leaf Anatomy, Leaf Morphology, and Pollen Morphology of Selected Temperate Orchids of Northeastern United States." $984.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1977-78. "Training Orchidologists for the Future: Part II. Generic Considerations in the Zygopetalinae." $3,730.

Southern Regional Education Board. 1977-78. "Travel Expenses for Unusual Facilities." $240.

FSU Foundation Grant. 1977-78. "Chemical Ecology and Sociobiology of Euglossine Bees." $995.

National Science Foundation. 1979-82. "Chemical Ecology of Euglossine Bees: The Role and Composition of the Mandibular Glands in Males." $65,856.

National Science Foundation. 1979-82. "Pollen Morphology and the Systematics of the Neotropical Gesneriaceae." $56,221.

AOS Fund for Education and Research. 1983-86. "Floral Fragrance Analyses of Species and Hybrids of the Stanhopea and Catasetum Alliances." $5,700.

Hewlett-Packard Corporation. 1986. "Instrumentation for chemical ecology: computer system upgrade for GC/MS." $40,000 grant to my laboratory for a new computer system for our GC/MS.

National Science Foundation. 1986-89. "Systematics of osmophore ontogeny and structure in euglossine-pollinated orchids." $120,000. I was Co-Principal investigator on this project with Dr. W.L. Stern.

National Science Foundation. 1987-89. "Chemosystematics and Pollination of Gongora (Orchidaceae)." $57,571 for first year, $56,797 for second year, total award $114,368. Extended through May 1990.

Ciba-Geigy Corporation. 1987. Donation of a 20'x 50' Lord & Burnham greenhouse for use in the orchid research program at the University of Florida. Value $16,000.

American Orchid Society. 1997-98. "Molecular approaches to the phylogeny of the Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)". $6,150.

National Science Foundation 1998-2000. "Collection improvements for the University of Florida herbarium". $115,032.

National Science Foundation 1999-2003. "Molecular and morphological systematics of the subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)". $25,000.

American Orchid Society. 2002-2004. $10,802. "What is Oncidium? Phylogenetics as a prelude to a revised classification of Oncidium and related genera."

National Science Foundation. 2003-2005. "Systematics of Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae): generic delimitation, pollinator rewards, and pollination." $300,000.

National Science Foundation 2006-2009 "Mechanisms of the Evolutionary Origins of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Tropical Orchids" $760,000 total, $145,451 UF portion. Three years.

National Science Foundation "Enhancements Of The Genetic Resources Of The Neontological Collections At The Florida Museum Of Natural History" $263,244. One of five CO-PIs, three years, awarded.

American Orchid Society "Molecular Systematics of the Neotropical Sobralieae: Parting the Reeds of Sobralia and Relatives" $7,096. December 2006-December 2008.

American Orchid Society "Comparative chloroplast genomics of Orchidaceae". $14,580. May 2007-May 2009.

Grants Awarded to Students:

Sigma Xi grants to K.J. Fritze (2), A.M. Pridgeon (1), W.M. Whitten (1).

Smithsonian Institution Predoctoral Fellowship at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute to J.D. Ackerman.

National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant 1981-83 to W.M. Whitten. "Floral Fragrances and Pollinators of the Gongora Quinquenervis Complex in Panama." $7,500.

Furness Fellowship from the American Orchid Society to Mario Blanco

KLARF Fellowship for one semester at the Royal Botanic gardens, Kew to Mario Blanco, 2006.

Field Experience:

1965 Panama - Mar-Apr.

1967 Ecuador - June-Aug; Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Mexico - Sept-Dec.

1968 Panama - Jan-Feb; Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua - June-Sept; Panama - Sept-Dec.

1969 Panama - Jan-Aug; Ecuador - March.

1970 Suriname, Guyana - Mar-Apr; Ecuador - June-July; Guyana - Aug; Panama - Sept, Dec.

1971 Panama - Aug.

1972 Colombia - Mar-Apr; Panama - Apr; Mexico - Nov-Dec.

1974 Panama - Dec.

1975 Ecuador - Jan.

1976 Panama - Mar, Dec.

1978 Panama - Mar-Apr, July.

1979 Panama - Sept.

1980 Ecuador - Feb-Mar; Panama - Apr, Sept-Oct.

1981 Ecuador - Oct-Nov.

1982 Ecuador - Feb-Mar; Bolivia - Nov-Dec.

1983 Bolivia - July-Sept.

1984 Bolivia - Jan.

1987 Ecuador - Aug.-Sept.

1988 Ecuador - Nov.-Dec.

1989 Ecuador - Apr.-May, Nov.-Dec.

1990-1995 Ecuador, one month per year.

1995 Argentina - March.

1999 Argentina, Dominican Republic, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Mexico.

2000 Ecuador

2003 Ecuador - Sept - Oct.

2004 Ecuador - February

2005 Ecuador - October - November

Courses taught (at FSU and UF):

1973-74 Evolution, Field Botany, Introduction to Plant Diversity

1974-75 Introduction to Plant Diversity, Evolution

1975-76 Topics in Population Biology (Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change), Evolution, Biosystematics, Experimental Botany

1976-77 Evolution, Introduction to Evolution and Ecology, Introduction to Plant Diversity

1977-78 Introduction to Evolution and Ecology, Origin and Evolution of the Angiosperms

1978-79 Introduction to Evolution and Ecology, Tropical Botany, Evolution, Population Biology, Scientific Photography, Plant Diversity

1979-80 Introduction to Evolution and Ecology, Field Botany, Speciation, Plant Diversity, Scientific Photography

1980-81 Evolution, Reproductive Biology of Flowering Plants

1982-83 Evolution

1997-2001 Molecular Systematics of Plants (each spring)


Previous Graduate Students:

Gilbert D. Newton, M.S. 1977.

Karen J. Fritze, M.S. 1979.

James D. Ackerman, Ph.D. 1981.

John T. Atwood, Ph.D. 1981.

Alec M. Pridgeon, Ph.D. 1981.

W. Mark Whitten, Ph.D. 1985.

Katia Silvera, M.S. 2002

Kurt Neubig, M.S. 2005

Current Graduate Students:

Mario Blanco, Ph. D.

Lorena Endara, Ph.D.

Kurt Neubig, Ph.D.

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