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Lorena Endara's Projects > Endemic Orchids of Ecuador > Threatened categories


Threatened categories

The threatened categories have been assessed using the IUCN Red List Criteria (Version 3.1) IUCN. We estimate that 85% of the 1701 of endemic orchids of Ecuador is under risk of extinction. In order to document the criteria assessments herbaria specimens were used and in some cases, field work and/or the knowledge of specialists were incorporated in the assessment.

The following is a simplified figure of the threatened categories, but for a better interpretation of the results we recommend to read the orchid chapter of the Red Book of the endemic plants of Ecuador and the criteria for the assessment of threatened categories.

The letters indicate different threats:

A: Deforestation with irreversible effects (especially used in species present in the coast of Ecuador)

B: Deforestation effects in the extent of occurrence of species

D: Effect that human activities or stochastic events may have on the species with restricted populations (No. of locations <5)


Search the threatened categories of the endemic orchids of Ecuador (Spanish only)


Our database is under construction, keep on checking !



The Ecuadorian Government through the voluntary contribution of the income tax of the citizens of the Republic of Ecuador financed the assesment and evaluation of the threatened categories of the endemic plants of Ecuador. A portion of Lorena Endara's work was financed by U.S. National Science Foundation grant No. DEB-234064 to N. H. Williams and W. M. Whitten for the project Systematics of the Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae): generic delimitation, pollinator rewards and pollination. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).


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